How Much Do You Know About Concrete?
101 Facts & Stats About Concrete
Did you know that people have been using concrete since ancient times to build long-lasting structures for protection from the elements? We know finding facts and figures about concrete can be time-consuming and frustrating, so we put together this list of the top 101 facts, notes, and statistics so you can easily reference them and refer back to them any time in the future. This space is constantly changing, so if you see a fact that is not up-to-date, feel free to let us know. And if you know a stat about concrete that we should add, let us know that too!
1. Concrete was used to build the Pantheon in Rome.
*One of the best-preserved Ancient Roman structures is Rome’s Pantheon. It was originally supposed to be a temple, but it is now used as a church. It is also regarded as the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome today.
2. Woodward Avenue in Greenfield Township was the first concrete road constructed.
*It was constructed in 1909.
3. Concrete and soapstone were used to build the statue of Christ the Redeemer in Brazil.
*To complete this incredible feat, it took nine years and 635 tons of concrete.
4. One of the most commonly used materials for underwater structures is concrete.
*This is due to the fact that concrete is highly resistant to both fire and water.
5. Concrete is listed in over 49 patents by Thomas Edison.
*Some of his designs included concrete homes and even concrete furniture. He experimented with concrete furniture such as pianos and refrigerators in precast concrete buildings. His patents included cement processing machinery, waterproofing cement pain, and even a mold for single-pour concrete production, making him a significant figure in the history of concrete.
6. Thomas Edison was the first to construct a precast concrete home and live in it.
*”Edison’s ‘Single-Pour System: Inventing Seamless Architecture” detailed how Thomas Edison developed and patented a revolutionary building system for mass-producing prefabricated and seamless concrete houses in 1917. Most people associate this style of architectural design and type of construction technology with the early twentieth-century European avant-garde.
7. According to the Washington Post, China used more cement from 2011 to 2013 than the United States did in the twentieth century.
*In the three years of 2011, 2012, and 2013, China used approximately 6.4 gigatons of cement. China has clearly used a staggering amount of cement in recent years. The construction boom in China has fueled economic growth, lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty.
8. The first cement was invented in the year 1824. Joseph Aspdin of England is credited with this invention.
*After a quarry that created strong stones, he called his cement Portland. Portland cement is the most commonly used component in the concrete today.
9. A typical concrete mixture contains 60-75 percent aggregate, 15 percent water and cement, and 5 to 8% air.
*Concrete is made up of 60 to 65 percent aggregates such as sand, gravel, and crushed stone, 15 to 20 percent water, and just 10 to 15% cement. As cement and water are mixed together, they harden, binding the aggregates together to form the solid mass we know as concrete. As a result, there is no such thing as a concrete sidewalk!
10. The most commonly used man-made material on the earth is concrete.
*Concrete is used more than any other substance on the earth, which may be due to the fact that the aggregates and water required to produce concrete are almost universally available. However, it may come as a surprise to learn that 20 billion tons of concrete are used every year, with China being the world’s largest user, accounting for half of all concrete manufactured annually!
11. Concrete was used by the Romans, but it was largely ignored during the Dark Ages.
*It wasn’t until the Middle Ages that concrete was once again used.
12. China is home to the world’s largest concrete building.
*The Three Gorges Dam on China’s Yangtze River is the world’s largest concrete structure, standing 185 meters tall and 2,309 meters long. The dam’s hydroelectric station, which was installed between 1994 and 2006, has a capacity of 22,500 MW. Its reservoir contains as much water as Lake Superior and has forced 1.3 million people to flee their homes.
13. Concrete has phenomenal compressive power.
*Compressive strength is measured in pounds-per-square-inch (psi) and refers to the amount of force required to split a material. Concrete’s compressive strength usually ranges from 3000 to 7000 psi, but it can reach up to 20,000 psi.
14. For underwater buildings, only reinforced concrete is used as a construction material.
*Since the cement is an aggregate, different mixes for different purposes can be created. Pozzolanic cement, which is made by grinding pozzolanic clinker with Portland cement, is suitable for underwater structures such as dams, piers, tunnels, and sewage systems. This unique concrete is not only flexible, but it is also extremely water-resistant, outperforming steel or wood in underwater construction.
15. For high-end countertops, sinks, fireplaces, and floors, concrete is a common option.
*Concrete is a common option for garden décor and outdoor furniture because of its ability to withstand water. Concrete, on the other hand, may be used to decorate the interior of a house. Because of its exceptional flexibility and durability, concrete is an ideal choice for custom countertops, sinks, and fireplaces. Concrete floors, on the other hand, can be a remarkably inexpensive way to give any indoor living space a sleek, contemporary look that is low-maintenance and will last a lifetime.
16. The words “concrete” and “cement” are not synonymous.
*Calcium and silica-rich materials, such as limestone and clay, are used to make cement. Cement is an ideal binding agent because of its unique adhesive properties, but it is susceptible to cracking on its own. Concrete contains cement. When cement is mixed with water, a paste is formed. When the paste is mixed with aggregates like gravel and sand, the result is concrete, which we all know and love.
17. To track enemy planes, the British Army used concrete.
*To track incoming aircraft before the invention of radar in World War Two, the British used parabolic acoustic mirrors, also known as “listening ears.” During World War II, a network of these massive concrete sound reflectors was built along England’s coast, and they can still be seen today.
18. In ancient Rome, concrete was used as a construction material.
*The pozzolana concrete was created by combining lime, water, and volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius. Vitruvius, a Roman civil engineer, described four different types of pozzolana: black, grey, red, and white. The Romans took advantage of this amazing new building material’s waterproof properties and used it to establish their port at Cosa. While the port was at its peak in 100 BC, three of its concrete piers still stand as a testimony to the ancient world’s engineering prowess.
19. In 1909, the first concrete highway was built.
*Woodward Avenue between Six and Seven Mile Roads in Greenfield Township, which is now part of northwest Detroit, was the first concrete road constructed in 1909. The Wayne County Road Commission, whose members included Henry Ford, constructed the mile-long road for $13, 492.83. Non-dirt roads had historically been constructed with bricks or cobblestones, or a combination of tar and stones known as macadam – all of which made for a bumpy trip!
20. The best material for road building is concrete.
*Did you know that concrete is used to build nearly 30% of interstate highways in the United States? That’s because, while concrete roads are slightly more expensive to construct than asphalt, they last longer and need less maintenance, making them the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly choice in the long run. Concrete is particularly well-suited to the Canadian environment because concrete mixes can be adapted for unique uses and conditions.
21. The only construction material that is highly resistant to both water and fire is reinforced concrete.
*The concrete is almost fireproof. When it comes into contact with flames, it does not burn, cannot be set on fire, and does not emit poisonous fumes. Concrete is an efficient fire shield because of its slow rate of thermal conductivity – or heat transfer. That is why concrete buildings and other structures can withstand a fire when everything else around them is engulfed in flames. Concrete is also water-resistant by nature. Concrete is the ideal construction material for underground structures such as lower floors, basements, and parking structures because membranes and special concrete mixes can render it practically waterproof.
22. Lime and volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius were used to make Roman concrete.
*This is in stark contrast to today’s concrete, which typically consists of water, aggregate (such as gravel or sand), cement, and air. Concrete has come a long way since its conception!
23. Art can be made out of concrete.
*Concrete sculpture exhibits can be found all over the world, thanks to the Concrete Art movement, which started in 1930. Ingolstadt, Germany, now has a concrete art gallery.
24. The Romans gave concrete its name.
*The word “concrete” is derived from the Latin word “Concretus,” which roughly translates to “grow together.”
25. High-rise buildings and highway bridges are both made of concrete.
*Concrete decks are used on almost all highway bridges because they are easier to maintain and less costly than steel. It is also used in the construction of high-rise buildings; the Trump International Hotel and Tower, which stands at 423 meters, is the world’s tallest concrete structure.
26. Concrete has a long life cycle and continues to improve over time.
*Concrete has hit approximately 90% of its final strength after four weeks. However, due to the conversion of calcium hydroxide into calcium carbonate and the absorption of carbon dioxide over time, it continues to strengthen for decades. Some bacteria also help in the strengthening of concrete!
27. The world’s largest dam needed 16 million cubic meters of cement to build.
*The Three Gorges Dam in China’s Hubei Province is the world’s largest single concrete pour – but it wasn’t a one-off pour. Almost one million cubic metres of cement were required per year during the 17-year construction period.
28. The Trump International Hotel/Tower is the world’s tallest concrete building.
*It stands at a height of over 420 meters and has 98 storeys.
29. Concrete Slabs weigh 145 pounds per cubic foot on average.
*Concrete’s weight varies greatly depending on the amount of air and moisture in it, but the typical slab weighs about 145 pounds per square foot.
30. Concrete can be used in a variety of places, from kitchen countertops to skyscrapers.
*Every year, more than seven billion cubic metres of concrete are used, enough to provide a cubic metre of concrete to every boy, woman, and man on the planet.
31. Concrete is simple to produce because it is made up of only water, sand, dirt, and air.
*Air makes up about 6% to 8% of concrete. Contrary to common opinion, cement is not the same as concrete, and only a small amount is needed to make concrete.
32. It would be impossible to fly anywhere without concrete. Bridges, sidewalks, highways, and curbs are all constructed with it.
*They, along with asphalt, make up the bulk of travel options in the United States.
33. Concrete, despite its toughness and resilience, can be easily molded.
*Concrete is poured into a mold and allowed to set. As a consequence, concrete is used to build several curved structures.
34. Concrete has a neutral or very plain appearance by default; however, if you want to improve its design, you can use different types of coatings.
*These coatings can make solid floors more resistant to wear and tear while also allowing for the display of artwork and a variety of colors.
35. Diamonds can be used to drill, saw, and cut concrete slabs.
*The Diamond Head is normally very robust and durable, and it can easily cut solid concrete slabs so that the engineers can proceed with the maintenance and repair work.
36. The Grand Coulee Dam in Washington is the world’s largest concrete structure.
*It was also the world’s largest dam, with an approximate volume of 27,200,000 cubic meters of concrete used in construction until it was surpassed in 2009 by China’s Three Gorges Dam.
37. Concrete can be traced all the way back to ancient Egypt, where it was used as a filler for the pyramids.
*The ancient Egyptians made bricks out of mud and straw around 3000 BC. Concrete is more akin to adobe than mud with straw. They did, however, use gypsum and lime mortars in the construction of the pyramids, despite the fact that most of us consider mortar and concrete to be two separate materials. Around 500,000 tons of mortar were needed for the Great Pyramid at Giza, which was used as a bedding material for the casing stones that formed the visible surface of the finished pyramid. This allowed stone masons to carve and set casing stones with joints less than 1/50-inch wide.
38. Admixtures are additives to a mixture that are used to accomplish specific objectives.
*As accelerating admixture-accelerators are mixed into concrete, they shorten the time it takes for the concrete to set and increase its power. The amount of time saved in setting varies. In hot weather, retarding admixtures are commonly used to prolong the setting time. Fly ash decreases the amount of heat produced by the concrete.
39. Concrete is a cost-effective material.
*Cement concrete has a low manufacturing cost as compared to manufactured cementitious materials used in building. As opposed to steel, polymers, and other building materials, it is both inexpensive and readily available. Cement, water, and aggregates are the key components of concrete. Both of these are inexpensive and readily available in local markets.
40. At room temperature, concrete hardens.
*At room temperature or ambient temperature, concrete sets harden, and gains power. Since the cement is a low-temperature bonded inorganic material, this is the case. As a consequence, concrete can be used regardless of the weather and can be strengthened with admixtures if appropriate.
41. Waste can be absorbed and processed by concrete.
*Many factory wastes may be used as cement or aggregate replacement. Fly ash, slag (also known as GGBFS or ground granulated blast-furnaces slag), waste glass, and even ground vehicle tires in concrete fall into this category. As a result, concrete manufacturing may have a huge effect on the environment due to industrial waste. Using these wastes enhances the properties of concrete as well, ensuring that the structure’s consistency is not jeopardized.
42. Low or no maintenance is needed.
*Unlike steel or wooden structures, where weathering is unavoidable, concrete structures do not need daily coating or painting to protect them from the elements. The coating can be replaced and redone on a regular basis, making concrete maintenance much less costly than steel or wood.
43. Pumped concrete is used in high-rise buildings where transferring concrete without the use of a pump is difficult.
*They are made in such a way that they can be conveniently transported. For a better supply, finer materials are used. The discharge would be smoother if the material is finer. To conveniently discharge the concrete, the pump used for conveyance is made of rigid or flexible materials.
44. Shotcrete is concrete that has been prepared in the same way as standard concrete, but it has been put in a different way.
*They are mounted with the aid of nozzles and higher air pressure. The advantage of this method is that it allows for simultaneous compaction and concrete placement.
45. Ready-mix concrete is manufactured in concrete plants and then transported using truck-mounted transit mixers.
There is no need for further care once they arrive at the location. The plant will be located in an adjustable position so that concrete can be delivered before the setting period begins.
46. Heavy rainfall caused by tropical cyclones poses major problems because it cannot sink into the ground because so much of our urban environment is made of impervious concrete.
*As the citizens of Houston, Texas learned when Hurricane Harvey struck in August 2017, this is a major problem in cities. The city got up to 50 inches of rain. Because of the hardscape, which included a lot of concrete, the water simply accumulated and flooded thousands of houses.
47. If cement were a nation, it would rank third in the world in terms of carbon dioxide emissions, trailing only China and the United States.
*Cement production contributes to global warming by emitting approximately 2.8 billion tonnes of CO2 per year.
48. Concrete has been used to fight hookworm disease in Mexico. Anemia and fatigue are symptoms of the disease, which affects the digestive tract.
*It may also damage children’s physical and cognitive growth. It penetrates human skin in its larval stage by coming into contact with polluted soil while walking barefoot. In the year 2000, state officials in Coahuila initiated a program to cover dirt floors in homes with concrete. As a result, infectious diseases such as hookworm were decreased by 78 percent.
49. Many existing buildings will be demolished to make room for all of the new construction.
*Old construction materials can be crushed and recycled, but much of the debris ends up in landfills. Japan recycles 90% of its concrete waste, while China recycles 10% and Brazil just 1%.
50. Since concrete hardens and gains strength over time, “curing” is one of the most critical steps in the construction process.
*Early load exposure should result in a compromised surface area if the proper cure time is not followed.
51. To help the curing process, fresh concrete must be kept moist throughout the curing phase.
*This can be achieved with the use of hoses or sprinklers, damp burlap, or commercially available moisture-sealing curing compounds.
52. Concrete is a very durable material.
*Concrete’s total strength is about 3000 psi (pounds per square inch). Concrete with a strength of over 20,000 psi is possible.
53. Concrete can float in some cases!
*Floating concrete structures include things like concrete canoes and boat docks.
54. Concrete absorbs 30-50 percent more light than asphalt due to its color.
*The temperature in major cities is reduced by up to 7% as a result of this.
55. Concrete is the world’s most natural-disaster-resistant construction material.
*Concrete’s strong structure offers additional structural support against earthquakes and extreme weather, as well as superior protection against the effects of outdoor temperature.
56. Although some of these homes use conventional concrete wall systems including concrete masonry and concrete cast onsite in removable forms, the use of insulating concrete forms, or ICFs, for both foundation and above-grade walls has seen the most rapid development.
*These stay-in-place types are made of high-density plastic foam and filled with fresh concrete and steel reinforcement to produce a super-insulated thermal sandwich that is airtight, quiet, and fire and wind-resistant.
57. Scented form release agents are available from some companies.
*Some firms are also selling delectable scents for customers looking for a more natural fragrance for their release officers. You can pick from scents like bubblegum, peach, and citrus if you want to enjoy the construction process.
58. The Space Needle was designed for the 1962 World’s Fair in Seattle.
*This colossal structure is as remarkable as it is iconic. The Space Needle is home to the world’s largest continuous concrete pour. It was built to withstand earthquakes and is still operational today.
59. Concrete is a material that can be found in nature.
*Although we usually think of concrete as a man-made object, there is at least one natural instance of the material. In Israel, a deposit dating back 12 million years has been found. It is formed by combining oil shale and limestone. Concrete does occur in nature, but in small amounts.
60. Bamboo was held together by a form of cement used by the ancient Chinese.
*It’s used in boats and on the Great Wall of China.
61. Concrete is less expensive for users.
*On concrete, heavy trucks get up to 20% better mileage. Spring load limits, which increase the number of truck trips and driving distances, do not extend to concrete highways.
62. Some aggressive materials, such as the majority of acids, may cause concrete to deteriorate.
*The first line of protection against chemical attack is to use high-quality concrete that is chemically resistant, followed by protective treatments to prevent corrosive substances from coming into contact with the concrete.
63. Concrete stains may be extracted using dry or mechanical methods, as well as wet methods involving chemicals or water.
*Sandblasting, flame washing shot blasting, grinding, scabbing, planning and scouring are all popular dry methods. Steel-wire brushes should be used with caution because they can leave metal fragments on the surface, which can rust and stain the concrete in the future. The application of water or other chemicals, depending on the type of the stain, is used in wet methods. The chemical solution either dissolves the staining material, allowing it to be blotted off the concrete surface or bleaches the staining substance, making it invisible.
64. Underwater, concrete can harden.
*Since Portland cement is a hydraulic cement, it sets and hardens as a result of a chemical reaction with water.
65. Surfaces of concrete flake and spall.
*Concrete should be air-entrained in areas of the world where it is exposed to freezing and thawing to avoid flaking and scaling of the soil. There will be damage to the surface if air-entrained concrete is not used. To increase the surface’s toughness, the water/cement ratio should be as low as possible. Too much water in the mix results in softer, less stable concrete, which contributes to surface flaking and spalling.
66. Concrete does crack.
*When concrete dries out, it, like all other materials, varies in volume slightly. This improvement in typical concrete is about 500 millionths of a millimeter. In terms of lengths, this equates to around 1/16 of an inch per ten feet. As the volume of the concrete changes due to shrinkage, contractors place joints in concrete pavements and floors to enable the concrete to crack in a neat, straight line at the joint.
67. There is a recommended mix of proportions of good concrete.
*If proper mix design practices are followed, good concrete can be made with a wide range of mix proportions. The rule of sixes is a strong general rule to follow:
- A minimum of six bags of cement per cubic yard of concrete is required.
- A limit of 6 gallons of water per bag of cement is allowed.
- A minimum of six days of curing (keeping the concrete moist) is required, as well as
- A 6-percentage-point air content (if concrete will be subject to freezing and thawing).
68. Cement is the simplest way to add strength.
*The ratio of water to cement in the cement paste that ties the aggregates together has the greatest effect on concrete strength. The greater the ratio, the softer the concrete, and vice versa. Adding more water would have a negative impact on any desirable physical property that can be measured.
69. You can add color to concrete.
*It’s achieved by mixing pigments into the concrete before or after it’s set, using white cement instead of gray cement, using chemical stains, or exposing colorful aggregates at the surface. The roughness of textured finishes can range from a smooth polish to gravel. To imitate stone, brick, or tile paving, geometric designs may be scored, etched, rolled, or inlaid into the concrete. Using divider strips (commonly redwood) to form panels of different sizes and shapes rectangular, square, circle, or diamond produces other fascinating patterns. Concrete can be rendered slip-resistant and gleaming with the use of special techniques.
70. Per cubic foot of air-entrained concrete, there are billions of microscopic air cells.
*By supplying tiny chambers for water to expand into as it freezes, these air pockets alleviate internal pressure on the concrete. Entrapped in the air under careful engineering supervision, air-entrained concrete is rendered with air-entraining Portland cement or by applying air-entraining agents to the concrete as it is mixed on the job. The amount of entrained air is normally between 4% and 7% of the volume of the concrete, but it can vary depending on the circumstances.
71. Finishing concrete that will be noticeable, such as driveways, highways, or patios, is common.
*Depending on the planned service use, slabs may be finished in a number of ways. Various colors and textures, such as exposed aggregate or a patterned-stamped surface, are available. Some surfaces may only need strike-off and screeding to achieve proper contour and elevation, while others may need a broomed, floated, or troweled finish.
72. The most common method for consolidating concrete is vibration, either internal or external.
*As concrete is vibrated, the internal tension between the aggregate particles is momentarily broken, and the concrete behaves like a liquid; it settles in the forms under gravity, and the large entrapped air voids rise to the surface more quickly.
73. Blended cement, including portland cement, are a form of hydraulic cement.
*Blended cements can be used in concrete as the only cementitious material or in conjunction with other supplementary cementitious materials added at the concrete factory.
74. It’s necessary to prevent skin irritation or chemical burns when working with fresh concrete.
*Action between fresh concrete and skin surfaces, eyes, and clothing for an extended period of time can cause serious burns, including third-degree burns. Consult a doctor if irritation remains. Get medical treatment right away if you have deep burns or a wide area of skin affected.
75. Even in small amounts, all of the materials used to produce concrete—portland cement, coarse aggregate, sand, and water—are very strong.
*When lifting heavy things, keep your back straight, your knees bent, and your weight between your legs as close to your body as possible.
76. In addition to traditional concrete, roller compacted concrete (RCC) is becoming a popular option for new dam construction and dam rehabilitation.
*When earthen dams are overtopped by floodwaters, RCC serves as armor plating, preventing them from washing out or collapsing. RCC provides power, economy, and speed of construction when used to build new dams.
77. Ready-mixed concrete is ideal for many jobs.
*Where small amounts of concrete or sporadic concrete placement are needed, ready-mixed concrete is especially advantageous. Ready-mixed concrete is also suitable for large projects where space is scarce and mixing plant and aggregate stockpiles are not feasible.
78. Concrete structures are pleasant to live in.
*They can improve air quality, keep rooms at a reasonable temperature, and reduce noise. Concrete buildings, maybe even more so, provide occupants with a sense of security.
79. As mixing water for concrete, almost any natural water that is drinkable and has no discernible taste or odor can be used.
*Excessive impurities in mixing water can cause efflorescence, staining, reinforcement corrosion, volume instability, and reduced toughness, in addition to affecting setting time and concrete strength. Unless testing may be conducted to assess the effect of the impurity on the final concrete, most concrete mixture requirements set limits on chlorides, sulfates, alkalis, and solids in mixing water.
80. To preserve concrete during excessively cold or hot weather, special techniques are used to cure it.
*The concrete will get stronger and more stable the longer it is kept damp. The structure and fineness of the cement, the mix proportions, and the moisture and temperature conditions all influence the rate of hardening. As concrete ages, it becomes much more robust. The majority of concrete’s hydration and strength gain occurs in the first month of its life cycle, but hydration persists at a slower pace for several years.
81. Unlike asphalt, seashell, or stone, a concrete driveway will last anywhere from 25 to 50 years.
*This provides families with a long-lasting driveway surface that will last for the lifetime of their homeownership.
82. Concrete driveways are notoriously difficult to fix.
*Extreme surface pressure or movement can result in cracking, necessitating a complete driveway replacement.
83. New “low-carbon” concrete mixes have been produced as businesses aim to become more environmentally friendly in their product design.
*Instead of using raw gravel, these solutions use ground-up concrete in the mix.
84. Surface stains from oil or other substances will show up.
*Extreme cold temperatures, as well as salt and de-icers, can cause concrete to crack.
85. Concrete’s dryness cannot be judged by the naked eye.
*When you use the right moisture monitoring process, you’ll get reliable results and the right reading to let you know when it’s time to stop. Concrete suppliers will advise and consult with the contractor on the best approach to use depending on the project’s particular factors and specifications.
86. Anyone who has used a DIY concrete crack filler knows that filling the crack would be ineffective unless the hole that caused the crack in the first place is also filled.
*Repairing a concrete crack is more difficult than just filling it. Simply filling the crack as a means of concrete crack repair would always fall short because the crack will reopen as the concrete sags into the underground voids.
87. The method for filling concrete voids has been around for nearly a century.
*Since the mechanism is just as the name suggests – grout (referred to as mud in those days) is injected into space, where it spreads and hardens – it was previously referred to as mud jacking or slab jacking.
88. Concrete doesn’t have a melting point in the traditional sense.
*When the temperature exceeds 1000 degrees Fahrenheit, the water evaporates, turning the asphalt into the sand and molten lava.
89. Nabataea or Bedouin merchants constructed the first concrete-like structures, hidden underground cisterns for storing scarce water.
*In the desert oases of southern Syria and northern Jordan, they built a small empire. Today, some of these cisterns can still be found in those regions.
90. By integrating fiberglass into the mix, a young Israeli inventor (Aron Losonczi) developed “transparent” concrete.
*As a result, the new material transmits light and appears to be lighter while keeping its properties.
91. A large amount of water should preferably rise to the surface and evaporate during the drying process.
*Water, on the other hand, will take a long time to travel. The water settled at the bottom of the mix, so the moisture content is higher deeper in the concrete slab.
92. As Roman concrete comes into contact with seawater, it not only becomes waterproof, but it also becomes stronger.
*Scientists believe that when ancient concrete is immersed in water, microscopic crystals form, making it much more resistant to weathering.
93. In 1963, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign built the first sports arena with a concrete dome.
*The Assembly Hall arena, which resembles a flying saucer and seats over 16,000 people in a perfect concrete circle, is known as Assembly Hall.
94. Fiber reinforcement was introduced as a way to strengthen concrete by mixing glass, carbon, steel, nylon, or other synthetic fibers into wet concrete before pouring.
*Fiber reinforcement can be used to repair buildings and exterior amenities such as driveways, slabs, and sidewalks, as well as swimming pools, patios, and decks.
95. Joseph Monier, a French gardener, successfully experimented with pouring concrete over a steel mesh.
*(When concrete and steel heat up, they expand at the same pace, making them an ideal match.) Monier’s invention was patented in various versions for use with railway sleeper trains, building slabs, and pipes. Reinforced concrete is much more durable and functional than unreinforced concrete. It can stretch greater distances, allowing concrete to soar in the form of skyscrapers and bridges.
96. Rebar concrete technology was first used in contemporary architecture by renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright.
*Reinforced concrete was used in some of Wright’s most famous structures, including Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois, which is considered the world’s first modern building, and Fallingwater in Mill Run, Pennsylvania, which is his most famous work.
97. San Francisco’s Alvord Lake Bridge was the first reinforced concrete bridge, and it was unaffected by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and others.
*It was completed in 1889. It is still standing today, more than a century after it was built.
98. The Hoover Dam is made up of 3.25 million cubic yards of concrete, with another 1.11 million used for the power plant and other structures.
*The dam, which is located on the border of Arizona and Nevada, was built in 1936 to hold back the mighty Colorado River.
99. William Ward, an American mechanical engineer, built the first reinforced concrete home in the United States in 1875.
*In Port Chester, New York, it still stands. Since Ward kept meticulous construction records, a great deal about this house is documented. It was made of concrete because his wife was afraid of fire, and it was constructed to look like masonry to make it more socially acceptable. This was the beginning of a $35 billion industry that now employs over 2 million workers in the United States alone.
100. George Bartholomew poured the first concrete street in the United States in 1891.
*It is still in use today. The strength of the concrete used for this street was estimated to be about 8,000 psi, which is roughly twice that of modern residential concrete.
101. Eugène Freyssinet built two massive parabolic-arched airship hangars at Orly Airport in Paris in 1921.
*He was a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete construction in France. He received a patent for pre-stressed concrete in 1928.
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